Motivation takes a leading place in the structure of the personality and is one of the key concepts used to explain the driving forces of behavior and activity. The significance of the study of motivation consists, in particular, in that, being a key problem of psychological science, the “core” of the psychology of the individual, it determines the characteristics of its activity. The lack of full elaboration of various issues related to motivation, restrains the solution of other issues of personality psychology.
In health care, the problem of motivation affects two important areas, reflecting its effectiveness: motivation of patients for treatment and labor motivation of medical workers. Motivation for treatment is a conscious desire of the patient for recovery, readiness to follow medical recommendations, perform the necessary therapeutic and preventive actions, adhere to the regime of therapy to improve health. From a psychological point of view, its basis is the features of patient motivation, value orientations that reflect its orientation. Motivation for treatment is also manifested in active motivated activity of the patient in situations related to his health. An important condition for motivated behavior in chronic physical illnesses is the conviction of patients that they must follow the treatment prescribed by the doctor in their own interests.
The formation of motivation for treatment implies changes in the motivational and behavioral sphere of the person’s personality. The disease brings physical and mental suffering, threatening human well-being. In this connection new motives of activity arise. The disease hinders the achievement of many goals that existed earlier and determined the behavior of the individual, in connection with this, the old goals are replaced with more optimal ones.
Motivation for treatment is an important structural component of the motivational level of the internal picture of the disease, which, in the process of its dynamics, reflects changes in the motivational (value-semantic) sphere of the individual, the value of health and disease, the goal of treatment, etc. Motivation for treatment is the motivation of the individual, her interest in joining the treatment process, continue to participate in it and be committed to a specific strategy for changing the behavior associated with the disease.
It is believed that low motivation for treatment is the main reason for the decrease in the severity of the therapeutic effect, significantly increases the probability of complications of the underlying disease, leads to a decrease in the quality of life of patients and an increase in the cost of treatment.
Great importance in the formation and strengthening of motivation for treatment is the personality of the doctor. His competence, age (the older the doctor, the higher his confidence in him), attentiveness, ability to establish emotional contact, interest in the fate of the patient are important for achieving a positive result. Negative affects the lack of a permanent doctor in the patient. A significant contribution is made by the work of specially trained nurses, which makes it possible to increase the effectiveness of therapeutic interventions to form and maintain motivation for a healthy lifestyle and treatment of the disease.
Currently, the most effective model of the relationship between a doctor and a patient is a partnership, in which they jointly take the path of getting rid of the disease, sharing responsibility for the result of treatment. The doctor must provide the patient with full and reliable information about his illness, condition, treatment options. At each stage of the examination and treatment the doctor coordinates his actions with the patient, informing the latter in detail about the advantages and disadvantages of each manipulation or appointment, and adapts his knowledge in accordance with the language peculiarities of the person’s interlocutor. The result of communication within the framework of the partner model is the active participation of the patient in the process of making a medical decision on the problem related to his health. Despite the opinion that, the behavior of the doctor plays a leading role in the development and maintenance of the patient’s motivation, paradoxically, in the proposed approach, the final responsibility for the treatment lies with the patient. The doctor solves the problem of increasing motivation, and the patient – performs the action. Putting the greater part of the responsibility for the treatment process on the patient actually increases, rather than reduces the likelihood of behavior change. According to the research, the doctors themselves note that exercise this model can be difficult, including because the doctor provides insufficient and inconclusive information about the patient’s health status, poor-quality treatment (errors, defects), lack of desire and experience in establishing psychological contact with the patient.
Thus, the motivational sphere is a complex dynamic education that changes throughout life, and is an important indicator of the personality that is able to influence human behavior, including in the situation of a changing lifestyle in somatic diseases. The success of the treatment is largely due to the motivation of the patient. The account of motivational factors allows to optimize the process of treatment, create a model of partnership between the doctor and the patient, has a positive effect on the continuation of treatment. The problem of motivation for treatment requires further study and development of diagnostic tools for the possibility of measuring it in order to find ways to change the strategy of patients’ behavior under conditions of illness.