In the conditions of health care reform, medical and preventive organizations should provide the population with quality medical care. New technologies require the improvement of knowledge that must be maintained throughout the professional career. Today, it is typical for American healthcare to form a new look at the identity of the head of nursing service – the senior nurse. These circumstances marked an actual problem, which is not only facing the entire nursing cause, but also the health care system as a whole – the lack of professional staff with specialized management knowledge. To date, all levels of training nurses are being implemented in our country – from an ordinary nurse to a specialist with a higher medical (nursing) education. The subsequent professional development assumes the system of improvement of professional skill not less often, than once in 5 years. Accelerating technical development makes the task of preserving professional competence increasingly complex.
The professional competence of a nurse is determined by a number of factors: general basic education, special vocational education, acquired skills, experience and work experience, as well as personal and social qualities. Treatment and prophylactic institutions that have a high level of professional training of personnel have the advantages that enable them to achieve high performance indicators, be able to introduce new modern technologies and methods of conducting medical diagnostic process.
There are two types of development of professional knowledge and skills – training of personnel in the workplace and training of personnel outside the workplace. Training of personnel in the workplace is training in the course of routine work in the average work situation at a particular workplace. The main and most common types of staff training in the workplace are: “sitting side by side” (method of twins), training manual, method of mentoring, delegation of authority, rotation, briefing. Advantages of this group of teaching methods are their flexibility, adaptability, efficiency, the ability to transfer information “from hand to hand”, which allows demonstrating by personal example to teach certain methods in practical work. Along with the indicated merits of this type of training, there are a number of significant drawbacks, namely: in the training process there is only contact with the employees of this organization, and there is always a risk in the insufficient qualification and competence of a specialist or mentor who conducts training and mentoring.
Training of personnel outside the workplace is training that takes place outside the medical institution (a particular workplace) and is organized by external structures. The main methods of teaching outside the workplace are: additional education (professional retraining and advanced training), seminars, conferences, trainings, modeling methods, lectures, study situations, business games, film watching, software training. As positive aspects of this group of methods one can name such things as: the possibility of exchanging information about problems and ways of their solution between employees of different medical institutions, while the readiness for open and honest discussion of problems in organizations is high enough due to the neutral educational environment, training is limited due to the irrevocable payment for education, the possibility of using progressive expensive educational equipment, orientation to prospective demand the higher level of the organization of the educational process due to the higher qualification of the teaching staff outside the organization’s walls than within it. As shortcomings of this group of teaching methods, it is necessary to attribute, first of all, their high cost. Secondly, the risk of a complete or partial discrepancy between the need for training of personnel and the actual content of the learning process. Thirdly, the existence of a temporary discrepancy between the emergence of the need for training and its satisfaction, since time, frequency, duration of training are set by external structures.
Depending on the place of work and the profile of the department, senior nurses have different specializations that determine their job responsibilities and nuances of work. The work of the senior nurse is characterized by considerable intellectual load and an abundance of stressful situations, requires the preservation of a large amount of information in memory, physical strength and endurance, contains elements of creativity, provides for high responsibility, increased self-discipline. The main goal of the activity of the senior nurse is to maximize the use of the professional and personal potential of the secondary and junior medical staff of the department to solve the main task of the medical institution – to ensure the high quality of medical care for patients. The main functional duties of the senior nurse: assisting the head of the hospital or polyclinic department in administrative and economic matters, rational organization and control of the work of nurses and nurses, providing the medical institution with medicines and supplies, monitoring the health of medical instruments and equipment, observing sanitary and epidemiological regime, control over the nutrition of patients, strict observance of the pharmaceutical order.
In order to provide the population with quality nursing assistance, it is necessary:
– to support and develop research in the nursing profession, as they allow specialists to expand knowledge, analyze and critically evaluate the existing practice, and also to clarify the effectiveness and usefulness of new or proposed options for organizing nursing activities. The results of scientific research can have an impact not only on the system of training specialists and their professional activities, but also on the development of the national sisterhood as a whole;
– to train employees in PC skills, as using medical information systems in work will allow the senior nurse to manage his time more efficiently, avoid mistakes and minimize the influence of the human factor;
– to organize educational and methodical units in each medical institution.
The activities of these structures should be aimed at training nursing personnel to solve specific professional problems and to conduct research in nursing.